Friday, February 28, 2020

Exploring the Functions of Routing

Exploring the Functions of Routing
In this lesson, we are going to explore the packet delivery process, from the routing perspective. We will see how one of the main functions of routing is to determine the optimal path across a routed network for IP packets. We will dive deep into certain components like routing tables and describe the different methods to populate routing tables, for example, static and dynamic routing. For dynamic routing, will list the characteristics of routing protocols and classify them into distance, vector, and link state commercial routers.
We know that routers implement layer 3 or network layer functions. Their main job is to forward packets based upon a routing table. When doing so, they also provide traffic segmentation, multiple broadcast domains, and define network layer addressing subnets and networks. Those networks are defined by router network adapters or ports to which IP addresses are assigned. Those IP addresses are typically the default gateway to PCs and servers or other networking devices.
Routers also connect to service providers and act as gateways to other networks, typically found at the perimeter or edge of the network. Some of those network adapters will be other than Ethernet. They will have connectivity to serial interfaces, DSL connections, and other forms of WAN. The main components listed here are similar to those of any computing and network device: CPU, motherboard, RAM, ROM. In fact, Cisco routers have different types of memory. They also have flash, where the image of the operating system resides. But the main point behind this is that those computing resources are now so powerful that they allow routers to start behaving like other network elements; they can incorporate firewalling functions and even voice call routing capabilities for IP telephony environments, so routers today are the same good old layer 3 devices, but they are also the jack of all trades, which allows you to integrate multiple functions within your network elements: some of those via software upgrades, and some of them via network modules in modular configuration routers.

Router Functions
The basic routing function can be split into two areas; one is to build a map of the network and for that routers typically use either static routing or dynamic routing protocols. With the help of dynamic routing protocols, routers will let other network devices know about not only the topology of the network but also about network changes. Static routing will be that static and will not adapt to network changes. Both models accomplish the task of building the map of the network in the form of the routing table.
The command and output shown here display the routing table on a Cisco router. With show IP route, an IOS device like this one could show the different destinations, the cost to get there, what is known as the administrative distance to define priorities for different routing protocols, and the next-hop to get to that destination. Notice how the routing protocol that learned that particular entry or destination is shown there in the first column. This is EIGRP, this is RIP, and this is OSPF. With this information, routers will be able to determine where to forward packets. They will do so by sending the packet to the next router in the path according to the info in the routing table. Notice then that routing is based on destination addresses.
Path Determination
During the process of path determination, the routers will consider multiple alternatives to get to the same place; those alternatives result from the redundancy built into most network designs. You want multiple paths, so that if one goes down, other alternatives will become available. In determining the best path, routers will consider several things. One of them is the source of the information, and so you could have multiple dynamic routing protocols or even static routing populating the routing table and telling the router what the options are.
The second piece of information is the cost of taking each path, and knowing that the path is made up of multiple links or hops that are defined by other routers. Then we could add the concepts of the cost in the context of the total path, but that cost is nothing more than the sum of all the costs to reach each hop in the path.
Well, the two decisions are ruled by different pieces of information, for example, in order to define a tie breaker between sources of information, the routers use the administrative distance, so if a routing protocol like OSPF is telling the router information on a destination and also RIP is telling that router information on the same destination, then the administrative distance will define who wins. Once the source is selected, then the cost is what matters; in other words, if OSPF is giving me the information on those two paths, then the cost of the path will define which one I take. This is similar to having two maps to drive from one city to the other. You first select which map you are going to follow and then if the map is giving you more than one option, then you will select the option according to perhaps the amount of time it takes or the amount of miles you have to drive for each option.
Routing Tables
So the routing table contains the network layer intelligence that tells the router how to forward packets to remote destinations. Initially, that routing table is made up of networks that are directly connected to the particular router. They are obviously shown as directly connected networks, after that the way to learn about remote destinations is by either populating the routing table with static routes in which an administrator will tell the router how to get to the destination or by populating the routing table via routing table advertisements coming from other routers.
So routers are gossipy and they will tell each other information that allows them to know about all the gossip in the network. In both cases, static and dynamic routing notice how routers use the reserved subnet addresses or network addresses that contain all 0s in the host portion of the IP address.
In this case, we are talking about a classless subnetted class A address. Network 10 split into subnets similar to a class C. However, in all cases here, the host portion of the address, the fourth byte is all 0s and that represents that subnet or network itself. In other words, these are destination networks or subnets. In the case of remote destinations, the routing table entries show what the next hop is in order to reach that destination. In this case, in order to reach, our next-hop is router 2 at

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Expanding Ethernet ports or Wi-Fi coverage

Expand Ethernet ports or Wi-Fi coverage: If you need more Ethernet ports than a router, gateway or firewall (regardless of type), you must purchase an Ethernet switch. This device is basically a smart hub that expands the amount of Ethernet ports you have, similarly in concept to a USB hub or even a power strip. There are different types.
An unmanaged switch is the simplest; It does not require any configuration, but it lacks advanced features and is better for small networks without complications. A smart or Internet-managed switch allows the configuration of switch ports, which support common advanced solutions such as VLAN, bandwidth control, 802.1X authentication and SNMP, and is suitable for most small medium-sized businesses.
If you need more Wi-Fi coverage than a wireless router can provide, or if you choose an Ethernet router / gateway / firewall alone, you can add wireless access points to your network. Access points are, in essence, wireless routers that lack the routing capability. Connect an access pin by executing the Ethernet wiring from the single Ethernet port to a port on your router manage/ gateway / firewall or switch.
The most basic access points broadcast a single SSID (network name), while most enterprise-class access points support VLANs and allow you to broadcast several SSIDs.

Rules and functions for WI-Fi

When buying a router or wireless access points, keep in mind that different wireless standards have variable maximum speeds. At least, in 2012 you would like to go with 802.11n (which some vendors call Wireless-N). If you have close neighbors, consider a dual band router or access point that also works in the 5GHz frequency band, which provides more more channels and is less congested than the common 2.4GHz band.
Remember that your devices equipped with Wi-Fi devices reach the highest possible speeds with the new routers or access points. We focus on those that support 802.11n and 802.11ac, but they will only achieve this speed when they support this standard. All wireless standards are compatible with their previous versions. But devices that use a previous wireless standard will not work as well and may even affect the performance of your entire wireless network.

Ethernet Considerations

When buying any network equipment that has Ethernet ports, consider these related features and specifications.
Ethernet Speed: For routers, gateways, firewalls and switches, focus on the models that support Gigabit for higher speeds on your wired devices. Keep in mind the speed that each of your devices supports, which you can update with a PCI or PCIe Ethernet card.
Switching capacity: If you require a network switch, evaluate the switching capacity of competing models to compare the total maximum simultaneous bandwidth supported.
Dual or backup WAN: If Internet access is crucial to your operations, consider routers, gateways, firewalls, switches and access points that support a second WAN port or that support a 3G74G card for fault tolerance or a roll and load in case your main Internet connection decreases.
PoE Support: If you plan to run wireless access points at all times consider routers, gateways, firewalls, switches and access points that support Power over Ethernet so that the power can be executed through Ethernet wiring with the data. This feature can save time and money, in contrast to the effort that could be placed near access points or to run new power lines.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

desktop technician job description

work area bolster master expected set of responsibilities

From a meeting with Kellie Whitney, executive of Support Services at Cherwell Software ™, we need to share the best tips for the administration work area staff, for chiefs, yet in addition for the individuals who deal with the Service Desk stage itself.

"My heart is truly in help. I have a ton of regard for the individuals who are in the principal line of help it gives." ~ Kellie Whitney

How were your beginnings in administration the executives?

I began in the United States Air Force, where I was a PC administrator for 5.5 years. I learned specialized abilities, structure and how to work viably with individuals. At that point I went to work for a huge media communications supplier, who works in a call place desktop technician job description. 

I went through nine years right now works in different jobs, including deals, deals preparing, client support backing and interchanges. I went to join a product organization, where I went to a client care group as a feature of a rebuilding program. Following a couple of years with this organization, I became Director of Support and Customer Service.

At the point when I began at Cherwell Software, I encouraged interchanges among advancement and item groups and the remainder of the organization.

What do you like most about your activity?

What I like most is to work with a group and searching for chances to improve the administration we offer to our customers, so our customers prevail with regards to serving their customers.

What range of abilities is the way in to a decent exhibition of your job?

It is critical to have great key intuition abilities, to have the option to do strategic execution and furthermore have incredible passionate insight, this is the way it interfaces with individuals. Everybody in Cherwell administration work areas have various characters and various needs. The equivalent is valid for our clients work area bolster master set of working responsibilities.

The hardest an aspect of your responsibilities?

Two things ... being a piece of a quickly developing organization ... what's more, the parity of tallying our head and assets to all the more likely address the issues of our developing client base.

What are you searching for in a decent assistance work area administrator?

I am searching for somebody with extraordinary investigative aptitudes, solid peace promotion aptitudes, and a capacity to create others.

What is the most troublesome thing about being a help gathering chief?

I think the most troublesome thing is to just stay aware of the assortment of points that go on at the same time and change starting with one zone of ​​focus then onto the next in a brief timeframe.

What are the aptitudes you are searching for while employing the administration work area staff?

For 1 st and 2 nd level help positions, I am searching for somebody with: 12 to year and a half of experience work area administration, a fundamental information on SQL, and some kind of ITIL structure preparing. In any case, actually a client center is the key. I'm additionally searching for somebody who is solid, who needs to buckle down, and who needs ceaseless improvement in their abilities and vocation.

Investigators support for 2 nd and 3 rd searching for somebody who comprehends and advances the accomplishment of the customer. These kinds of individuals should comprehend client needs and break new ground. It will require having the board duties, for example, revealing and going about as collaborator director when vital. I am searching for somebody with incredible limit with regards to examination, somebody who is process arranged, can take care of the issues and convey well indeed.

What is it like to work in an assistance work area group

Working at an IT administration work area is an extraordinary activity. You get a genuine feeling of accomplishment. Individuals buckle down on Cherwell's administration work area groups, and at last they do it for clients, accomplices, associates, and that is incredible. They have a genuine 'we can do it' mentality.

Is it an incredible vocation decision?

Indeed, particularly for somebody who wants to serve, to take care of issues, and to help other people succeed. It additionally offers a great deal of approaches to remain tested and offers a ton of chances and assortment on an everyday premise. a day.

Monday, February 24, 2020

server maitenance

Server support

server support employments

A server is programming facilitated on an amazing PC whose reason for existing is to store and oversee data. The servers stay on 24 hours per day , in light of the fact that they are the ones that store the data that is required to approach consistently.

Servers , like whatever else, need intermittent upkeep , just as programming and equipment refreshing, since not all the data they store stays static server support work server maitenance.


Servers ought to be kept in a segregated spot at a low temperature Since they stay on constantly, they are more inclined to overheating than a PC.

Stage 1 . To look after them, you need to turn them off and unplug them .

Stage 2 . The support individual needs to contact a metal surface to release friction based electricity.

Stage 3 . At the point when they are killed and unplugged, they should be cleaned inside with a fluid item or a froth to evacuate dust and collected junk. Check that all parts work appropriately and that the fans give adequate ventilation.


The servers contain touchy data, so it is essential to guarantee that there are no unapproved sections to your databases.

Updates . To dodge that and for the best possible working of the server, it is critical to keep the product, antivirus and firewall refreshes exceptional .

Backrests . It is additionally essential for the server to perform programmed reinforcements every once in a while , so the data isn't lost if the equipment is harmed.

Servers are gear whose get together, establishment and upkeep are not quite the same as those of a PC and, hence, their support must be performed via prepared work force .

Thursday, February 20, 2020

server technician jobs

A server (server) is a computer of great power that is responsible for "providing the service" to transmit the information requested by its customers (other computers, mobile devices, printers, people, etc.)
Web servers (web server) are a component of servers whose main function is to store, in web hosting , all the files of a web page (images, texts, videos, etc.) and transmit them to users through browsers using the HTTP protocol (Hipertext Transfer Protocol).
What is a server on the Internet for?
The main role of a web server is to store and transmit the requested content of a website to the user's browser .
This process, for Internet users, lasts no more than a second, however, at the web server level it is a more complicated sequence than it seems.
To fulfill its functions, the server must have the ability to always be on to avoid interrupting the service offered to its customers. If this server fails or shuts down, Internet users will have problems entering the website server technician jobs
How does a server work?
Communication between a server and its clients is based on HTTP, that is, the hypertext transfer protocol or its HTTPS encoded variant.
To know how it works, it is first necessary to know that the web server is permanently waiting for a request for information .
Also, keep in mind that every computer, smartphone or tablet has a unique and unrepeatable IP address that identifies it from another device on the network, this is how the web server sends the exact information that the Internet user is waiting for.
However, in order for the web server to fulfill its function, it is necessary to receive the request from a browser, in other words, an order is sent from an IP address to the IP address of the server that hosts the site's files in question.
Next, the web server searches its files for the information that is being requested, proceeds to interpret the lines of code and send the result to the browser whose IP address was the requestor.
This result is shown to Internet users and is what always happens when browsing Internet sites. When this process is complete we can say that the web server has fulfilled its function.
What are the characteristics of a server?
As necessary features of a web server at the software and hardware level , we can find:
Software level
It ensures that the hardware works and manages to interact with the services that the system runs. Some examples are:
  • Unix,
  • Linux,
  • or Windows
File systems
It is a logical guide that allows the system to locate, sort and filter data on the hard drive, so that we can read, modify or delete them.
HTTP server software
They are the different types of web servers specialized in transmitting the content via web (Apache, Nginx, IIS, Caddy, etc.).
Virtual hosting
It allows that under the same web server and IP they stay in several different websites.
Dispatch of static and dynamic files
Static files provide support for hosting and dispatching files such as:
  • JPG,
  • GIF,
  • PNG,
  • BMP,
  • CSS ,
  • TXT,
  • HTML,
  • Javascript,
  • MP3
  • and MP4.
Dynamic files work for information in PHP, ASP, Python, Ruby and GO.
Network and Limit Monitoring
It allows monitoring network traffic, packets that come and go, as well as system services and hardware use such as:
  • the use of Storage;
  • RAM consumption;
  • CPU occupancy rate;
  • network speed;
  • write / read performance on disk.
Security system
The security system of a server must:
  • impose access limits per IP address;
  • deny or allow access to certain files or URLs;
  • request username and password for basic HTTP authentication;
  • filtering insecure requests;
  • Support to dispatch encrypted information with SSL security certificates via HTTPS.
Hardware level
Rack and cabinet
The rack refers to the place where the servers are physically housed and the cabinet is the frame that holds the hardware components of a computer.
It is the server's data processing center from which all the logical and mathematical calculations are performed so that the user can manipulate and access the data as needed.
It is used to store information and data temporarily depending on the user's demand through the operating system.
Storage units
The storage of web servers is done on hard drives, which allow you to store the information of the operating system, system services, and ultimately the data loaded by the user.
Network port
The bandwidth is what allows you to have enough volume to transmit information back and forth to and from your web server.
What types of servers exist?
There are many types of web servers, know which are the most used web servers today:
It is the most common and used in the world, however, it has lost popularity against Microsoft IIS and Nginx.
Among the advantages of Apache is that it is an open source, with free and cross-platform software , and among its disadvantages its low performance when it receives thousands of simultaneous requests (requests) in dynamic content processing or static files.
Known and popularized as one of the best Apache alternatives . Nginx is a free and open source web server (although there is also a commercial version) that stands out for its high performance.
Among its benefits, a simple, light, fast and excellent configuration in terms of safety and performance stands out, it also allows it to be configured to integrate natively with almost any modern technology and programming language.
As disadvantages we can find that it does not support .htaccess (Apache) files, although it includes its own rewriting language.
It is an HTTP dispatch software developed by LiteSpeedTech, there is an open source version and a commercial version that includes different types of licenses.
Some of the benefits of LiteSpeed is that it provides large amounts of simultaneous connections with a really low resource consumption (even with demanding applications such as those that use PHP) and at the level of static files it lives up to Nginx.
Microsoft IIS
Internet Information Services or IIS has become popular to offer cloud services , mainly in Azure (Microsoft's Cloud Hosting platform).
In addition, its perfect integration with Windows (of course), Visual Studio and its tools made this web server position itself as the leading server in the business world.
Other known web servers
  • Lighttpd ;
  • Caddy ;
  • Cherokee ;
  • NodeJS ;
  • Sun Java System Web Server ;
  • Google Web Server (GWS), is Google's private server so it cannot be downloaded.
Each web server is indicated for certain functions, so choosing which one you are going to use will depend on what you intend to do with them.
In conclusion
Do not forget that when considering choosing a web server you should consider:
  • how well it works with the operating system and other servers;
  • its ability to handle server programming;
  • security features;
  • the particular tools of publication;
  • search engine ;
  • the creation of sites that come with it.
Web servers not only allow you to publish your site on the Internet, but also deliver the content to your readers. Knowing which one suits you and your readers is essential for the web server you choose to properly fulfill its functions.
Did you like the article and want to continue learning? So, be sure to read our blog about the types of programming language . It will be very useful!
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Wednesday, February 19, 2020

how much do technicians make

What is the compensation of a PC specialist?

PC innovation influences regular day to day existence in the manner we get news and amusement and even the vehicles we drive. PC professionals construct the systems that organizations and associations use to interface PC clients, share records and hardware -, for example, printers - just as the Internet association. The instruction, area and kind of industry in which the specialist works affects the yearly pay he can win PC upkeep expert compensation.


The expert's specialization affects the normal yearly compensation of the equivalent. PC fix professionals acquire a pay between US $ 22,458 and US $ 38,922, while PC arrange specialists earned compensations between US $ 30,474 and US $ 47,331 in November 2010. The system specialist is answerable for the upkeep and fix of The PC system of the business, while a PC fix professional is liable for fixing equipment and peripherals.


The more training a professional has in the field of PC innovation, the more noteworthy the installment. For instance, an individual with auxiliary training who functions as a PC organize expert gains an hourly pay between US $ 11.12 and US $ 18.50, while the professional with a college degree can win between US $ 13.93 and US $ 20, 99 every hour Those looking for a vocation as a system specialist must seek after four year certifications in software engineering, programming or data innovation.

Geographic area

The geological area of the organization can change the pay that a specialist can acquire. The hourly rate for organize professionals in Riverside, California, the city that pays the best, ranges from US $ 13.76 to US $ 30.20 every hour, while those working in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania gain lower pay rates, between US $ 11.48 and $ 24.42. Work in the PC business is relied upon to increment by 30 percent in the United States until 2018, as per the Bureau of Labor Statistics how much do technicians make


Data innovation industry innovation has the most significant compensation for organize specialists with hourly rates between US $ 13.68 and US $ 21.49 every hour. Laborers right now look for some kind of employment in wellbeing administrations, educational systems, Internet specialist co-ops and programming organizations.


PC professionals can progress to supervisory positions or work as database heads and experts. Experts with experience as a professional can begin a vocation as autonomous advisors.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

maintenance skills

Maintenance technicians should ensure that the equipment used in the manufacturing and processing industries works properly and efficiently. Diagnose and repair faults. They also perform periodic maintenance checks.

 Maintenance technician work activities

When a manufacturing part or machinery or processing equipment is not working properly, it must be repaired. They study the technical schemes of the machinery to analyze the problem, or follow the instructions written on an instruction sheet.

They detect the installation or machinery error and repair it with hand tools, such as keys, keys and screwdrivers. They also use power tools and perform welding to complete the repair maintenance skills.
Sometimes, they replace worn parts, then grease them with oil and adjust machinery or equipment before reassembly.
Maintenance technicians have to be experts in many different areas. For example, they can work with electronic, pneumatic and hydraulic equipment.
Sometimes maintenance technicians need to completely check the equipment. They are responsible for the extraction of machinery, control and cleaning of its parts and then reassemble them.
They renew equipment and machinery periodically, for example, once a year, when the factory or plant is closed for summer vacations.
Maintenance technicians sometimes install new equipment and can help train operators on how to use them.
The work can be dirty or dirty. Maintenance technicians can wear overalls or protective uniforms, safety glasses and protective footwear.
Maintenance technicians often work in an adjacent workshop or area away from the main manufacturing or processing plant. In some cases, they work outdoors, for example, at the installation site of the equipment.

Monday, February 17, 2020

How to perform preventive maintenance on a server

The servers are the master equipment or those equipment that provide service to computers that are connected to that server through a LAN . Servers, unlike terminal equipment, work all the time and have virtually no rest. It is for this reason, that from time to time it is necessary to perform preventive maintenance to keep the operation of the servers as optimal as possible and avoid errors or situations that may reduce the operation of the network. Today, we will see some tips for effective maintenance of servers in small LAN networks.
Preparing the equipment for maintenance

The first step to perform preventive maintenance to our network or server equipment is to prepare it for the maintenance process. To do this, we must turn off the equipment and disconnect it from the hubs or connection systems to the rest of the network equipment maintenance tech
Once the server is free of connections, it is time to remove it from the rack where it is hosted. We place it on a flat and safe and completely insulating surface.
Starting hardware maintenance
This step is simple, but very important, since as long as the equipment is clean inside the temperature will rise less and the cooling systems will work with less effort.
To begin maintenance, first, we clean the surface of the server with a dry cloth or special towel and remove all the dust, we can use special cleaning liquid. Once the exterior part is cleaned, it is time to open the server and remove all the dust from the internal part with a compressed air device and fine brushes and brushes.
It is convenient to use a protection liquid (spray) for equipment or electrical circuit boards, and if necessary, we can add or change RAM memory boards or any other device, such as adding a new hard disk or cooling system. Then, after completing the hardware improvement process, it is time to close the server, and connect it to a voltage regulator and a monitor to perform the next step of the maintenance process.
Starting software maintenance
Once we connect the server to a power source and to a monitor, keyboard and mouse, it is time to perform a complete software update, that is, update the system with the latest version of Windows Server or Linux Server that we have or any Another system that our server uses. In this way, we ensure that vulnerabilities will be minimized.
After updating the server software, we can run an antivirus in a Live way, completely disconnected from the Internet. It is recommended that it be a recent version so that it can detect any anomaly. Once the threats have been executed and eliminated, if any, we proceed to clean temporary files. It is time to turn off the equipment and remove the source, the monitor and other implements that we used for the previous step and prepare the equipment to connect it again to the network.
Installing the server again on the network.
Before installing the server back into the network, it is convenient to connect it to an uninterruptible power source or UPS, to avoid failures due to a drop in the power supply. Then, we put the server in the rack where it was originally. Now, we connect the server to the network with all its cables and hubs, turn it on to verify the operation of all the applications and services of the network and we will have completed the maintenance process