Saturday, April 4, 2020

Advantages and disadvantages of fiber

Advantages

  • A very wide band of passage, which allows very high flows (of the order of the Ghz).
  • Small size, therefore it takes up little space.
  • Great flexibility, the radius of curvature can be less than 1 cm, which greatly facilitates installation.
  • Very light, the weight is in the order of a few grams per kilometer, which is about nine times less than that of a conventional cable.
  • Full immunity to disturbances of electromagnetic origin, which implies a very good transmission quality, since the signal is immune to storms, sparking ...
  • High security: the intrusion into an optical fiber is easily detectable by the weakening of the light energy in reception, in addition, it does not radiate anything, which is particularly interesting for applications that require a high level of confidentiality.
  • Does not interfere.
  • Insensitivity to parasites, which is a property mainly used in heavily disturbed industrial environments (eg in subway tunnels). This property also allows the coexistence of the same non-metallic optical cable conduits with the electric power cables.
  • Very small attenuation independent of frequency, which makes it possible to bridge important distances without intermediate active elements.
  • Great mechanical resistance (tensile strength, which makes installation easier).
  • Resistance to heat, cold, corrosion.
  • Easy to locate the cuts thanks to a process based on telemetry, which allows to quickly detect the place and subsequent repair of the fault, simplifying maintenance work.

Disadvantages

Despite the advantages listed above, fiber optics presents a series of disadvantages compared to other transmission media, the most relevant being the following:
  • High brittleness of the fibers.
  • Need to use more expensive transmitters and receivers.
  • Splices between fibers are difficult to perform, especially in the field, making repairs difficult in the event of a cable break.
  • You can not transmit electricity to power intermediate repeaters.
  • The need to carry out, in many cases, electrical-optical conversion processes.
  • Conventional fiber optics cannot transmit high powers.
  • There are no optical memories certified network cable installer salary.
Likewise, the cost of the fiber is only justified when its large bandwidth capacity and low attenuation are required. For low bandwidth it can be a much more expensive solution than the copper conductor.
The optical fiber does not transmit electrical energy, this limits its application where the receiving terminal must be powered from an electrical line. Power must be supplied by separate conductors.
Hydrogen molecules can diffuse into silicon fibers and cause changes in attenuation. Water corrodes the glass surface and turns out to be the most important mechanism for fiber optic aging. Incipient international regulations on some aspects regarding the parameters of the components, transmission quality and tests.

fiber optics and how does it work?

WHAT IS FIBER OPTICS?

Fiber optics is a method of data transmission that consists of sending encoded information through a beam of light projected through a glass tube or pipe. It has its origins in the work of 19th-century scientists Jean-Daniel Colladon (a Swiss physicist who discovered that a continuous ray of light could shine through a water pipe through internal reflection) and John Tyndall (a physicist Irishman who formally demonstrated internal reflection to the Royal Society in London by illuminating the stream from a jug of water.)

AND HOW DO FIBER OPTIC CABLES WORK?

Fiber optic cables are made of very thin strands of glass or plastic, each of which is less than a tenth the thickness of a human hair. These threads are known as optical fibers, and each of them is capable of transmitting around 25,000 phone calls. Fiber optic cables typically range from a minimum of two to several hundred strands.
To ensure uninterrupted light transmission, the glass used in the manufacture of optical fibers must be very pure, so the core of a cable is usually made of silicon dioxide. Surrounding this core is a somewhat different layer or coating of glass, which is usually infused or "doped" with remnants of elements such as boron or germanium.
The core and cladding are covered with a plastic cladding and a Kevlar or metal fiber cladding, and the entire assembly is sealed against water and dirt by a protective outer layer.
A complete cable can only be a few centimeters in diameter, with a core of only five to ten millionths of a meter fiber optic cable technician salary

LIGHT BOUNCING AROUND

Transmission through fiber optics is achieved when the photons or light particles that form a beam hit the glass walls of a fiber optic at a very shallow angle (forty degrees or less), and are reflected back as if hitting a mirror. This is known as total internal reflection, and ensures that all transmitted light remains within the tube.
The physical structure of the cable contributes to this, since the doping applied to the coating reduces its refractive index with respect to that of the core (different reflection characteristics) and effectively limits the light beam to the core of the fiber.
Continuous lengths of cable up to 100 km (60 miles) are possible, with light bouncing off the walls and reflected in the mainstream at speeds of about two-thirds of the natural speed of light when empty (which is about 300,000 km or 186,000 miles per second).
That is why there is normally an equipment booth located 80 to 100 km (40 to 60 miles) away on long distance transmission lines, to augment or retransmit signals along the next section of cable.